Updating software in wireless sensor networks a survey
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In order to solve the contradiction between service quality and survival time of wireless sensor networks, a new energy consumption balance model is proposed by shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA).
This problem, called minimum latency broadcast scheduling (MLBS), has been studied extensively in wireless ad-hoc networks whereby nodes remain on all the time, and has been shown to be NP-hard.
However, only a few studies have addressed this problem in the context of duty-cycled WSNs.
Reference  combines the congestion-aware routing mechanisms and the networks-encoded data transfer method and proposes a regional congestion detection method based on the magnetooptical media and on the basis of the congestion of the neighboring node.
The characteristics of WSN determine that its primary design objectives are to use the limited energy efficiently and meet a certain quality requirement for service like reliability, real time, and so forth.
However, the high reliability and the low delay might consume the network energy significantly, thus reducing the service life of WSN [6–9].
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks are moving out of the laboratory and into the field.
For a number of reasons there is often a need to update sensor node software, or node configuration, after deployment.
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Furthermore, as mentioned above, all dominators and their parent nodes in BS-2 form a CDS.